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    UNITIL CORP - 10-Q - Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Resultsof Operations


    August 2, 2022 - Edgar Glimpses

     

       See Item 7. "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in Unitil Corporation's 2021 Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information. OVERVIEW Unitil Corporation (Unitil or the Company) is a public utility holding company headquartered in Hampton, New Hampshire. Unitil and its subsidiaries are subject to regulation as a holding company system by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) under the Energy Policy Act of 2005. Unitil's principal business is the local distribution of electricity and gas throughout its service territory in the states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Maine. Unitil is the parent company of three wholly-owned distribution utilities: 

      i) Unitil Energy Systems, Inc. (Unitil Energy), which provides electric

       service in the southeastern seacoast and state capital regions of New Hampshire, including the capital city of Concord; 

      ii) Fitchburg Gas and Electric Light Company (Fitchburg), which provides both

       electric and gas service in the greater Fitchburg area of north central Massachusetts; and 3 

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      iii) Northern Utilities, Inc. (Northern Utilities), which provides gas service

      in southeastern New Hampshire and portions of southern and central Maine,

      including the city of Portland, which is the largest city in northern New

      England.

      Unitil Energy, Fitchburg and Northern Utilities are collectively referred to as the "distribution utilities." Together, the distribution utilities serve approximately 107,700 electric customers and 86,600 gas customers.

       In addition, Unitil is the parent company of Granite State Gas Transmission, Inc. (Granite State), an interstate gas transmission pipeline company, operating 86 miles of underground gas transmission pipeline primarily located in Maine and New Hampshire. Granite State provides Northern Utilities with interconnection to major gas pipelines and access to domestic gas supplies in the south and Canadian gas supplies in the north. Unitil had an investment in Net Utility Plant of $1,279.1 million at June 30, 2022. Earnings from Unitil's utility operations are derived primarily from the return on investment in the utility assets of the three distribution utilities and Granite State. Unitil's total operating revenue includes revenue to recover the approved cost of purchased electricity and gas in rates on a fully reconciling basis. As a result of this reconciling rate structure, the Company's earnings are not directly affected by changes in the cost of purchased electricity and gas. Unitil Resources is the Company's wholly-owned, non-regulated subsidiary. The Company's other subsidiaries include Unitil Service Corp., which provides, at cost, a variety of administrative and professional services to Unitil's affiliated companies; Unitil Realty Corp., which owns and manages Unitil's corporate office building and property located in Hampton, New Hampshire; and Unitil Power Corp., which formerly functioned as the full requirements wholesale power supply provider for Unitil Energy. Unitil's consolidated net income includes the earnings of the holding company and these subsidiaries. RATES AND REGULATION Regulation Unitil is subject to comprehensive regulation by federal and state regulatory authorities. Unitil and its subsidiaries are subject to regulation as a holding company system by the FERC under the Energy Policy Act of 2005 with regard to certain bookkeeping, accounting and reporting requirements. Unitil's utility operations related to wholesale and interstate energy business activities are also regulated by the FERC. Unitil's distribution utilities are subject to regulation by the applicable state public utility commissions with regard to their rates, issuance of securities and other accounting and operational matters: Unitil Energy is subject to regulation by the New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (NHPUC); Fitchburg is subject to regulation by the Massachusetts Department of Public Utilities (MDPU); and Northern Utilities is regulated by the NHPUC and the Maine Public Utilities Commission (MPUC). Granite State, Unitil's interstate gas transmission pipeline, is subject to regulation by FERC with regard to its rates and operations. Because Unitil's primary operations are subject to rate regulation, the regulatory treatment of various matters could significantly affect the Company's operations and financial position. Unitil's distribution utilities deliver electricity and/or gas to all customers in their service territory, at rates established under cost of service regulation. Under this regulatory structure, Unitil's distribution utilities recover the cost of providing distribution service to their customers based on a historical test year, and earn a return on their capital investment in utility assets. The Company's distribution utilities and its gas transmission pipeline company also may recover certain base rate costs, including capital project spending and enhanced reliability and vegetation management programs, through annual step adjustments or cost tracking rate mechanisms. Fitchburg has been subject to revenue decoupling since 2011. Unitil Energy is subject to revenue decoupling as of June 1, 2022. Revenue decoupling is the term given to the elimination of the 4

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       dependency of a utility's distribution revenue on the volume of electricity or gas sales. The difference between distribution revenue amounts billed to customers and the targeted revenue decoupling amounts is recognized as an increase or a decrease in Accrued Revenue, which forms the basis for resetting rates for future cash recoveries from, or credits to, customers. These revenue decoupling targets may be adjusted as a result of rate cases and other authorized adjustments that the Company files with the MDPU and NHPUC. The Company estimates that the revenue decoupling for Fitchburg applied to approximately 27% and 11% of Unitil's total annual electric and gas sales volumes, respectively. As a result of Unitil Energy now being subject to revenue decoupling, as of June 1, 2022, revenue decoupling now applies to substantially all of Unitil's total annual electric sales volumes and approximately 11% of Unitil's total annual gas sales volumes. As a result of the recently received final order in Northern Utilities' base rate case in New Hampshire, substantially all of Northern Utilities' gas sales volumes in New Hampshire will be subject to decoupling as of August 1, 2022. Accordingly, as of August 1, 2022, the Company estimates that revenue decoupling will apply to approximately 43% of Unitil's total annual gas sales volumes. 

      RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

       The following section of MD&A compares the results of operations for each of the two fiscal periods ended June 30, 2022 and June 30, 2021 and should be read in conjunction with the accompanying unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying Notes to unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part I, Item 1 of this report, which are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP). The Company continues to respond to the coronavirus pandemic by taking steps to mitigate the potential risks posed by its spread. The Company's electric and gas utility distribution operating systems have continued to provide service to customers without disruption due to the coronavirus pandemic through the date of this filing. The Company has implemented its Crisis Response Plan to address specific aspects of the coronavirus pandemic. The Crisis Response Plan guides emergency response, business continuity, and the precautionary measures being taken on behalf of employees and the public. The Company has initiated extra precautions to protect employees who work in the field and for employees who continue to work in operations, distribution and corporate facilities. The Company has implemented social distancing and work from home policies, where appropriate. The Company continues to implement strong physical and cyber-security measures to ensure that its systems remain functional in order to serve both operational needs with a remote workforce and to help ensure uninterrupted service to customers. The extent to which the coronavirus pandemic affects the Company's financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows will depend on future developments, that are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, including the duration of the outbreak, new information that may emerge concerning the severity of the coronavirus pandemic, and the actions to contain the coronavirus pandemic or treat its effect, among others. In particular, the continued spread of the coronavirus could adversely affect the Company's business, by (i) disrupting the Company's employees and contractors ability to provide ongoing services to the Company, (ii) reducing customer demand for electricity or gas, or (iii) reducing the supply of electricity or gas, each of which could have an adverse effect on the Company's financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. The Company's results of operations historically have reflected the seasonal nature of the gas business. Annual gas revenues are substantially realized during the heating season as a result of higher sales of gas due to cold weather. Accordingly, the results of operations are historically most favorable in the first and fourth quarters. Fluctuations in seasonal weather conditions may have a significant effect on the results of operations. Sales of electricity are generally less sensitive to weather than gas sales, but also may be affected by the weather conditions in both the winter and summer seasons. As a result of recent rate cases, the Company's electric and gas GAAP gross margins and electric and gas adjusted gross margins (a non-GAAP financial measure) are derived from a higher percentage of fixed billing components, including customer charges. As of June 1, 2022, substantially all of Unitil's total annual electric sales volumes and approximately 11% of the Company's total annual gas sales volumes are decoupled and changes in sales to existing customers do not affect GAAP gross margin and adjusted 5

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       gross margin. As a result of the recently received final order in Northern Utilities' base rate case in New Hampshire, substantially all of Northern Utilities' gas sales volumes in New Hampshire will be subject to decoupling as of August 1, 2022. Accordingly, as of August 1, 2022, the Company estimates that revenue decoupling will apply to approximately 43% of Unitil's total annual gas sales volumes. On August 6, 2021, the Company issued and sold 800,000 shares of its common stock at a price of $50.80 per share in a registered public offering (Offering). The Company's net increase to Common Equity and Cash proceeds from the Offering was approximately $38.6 million. The proceeds were used to make equity capital contributions to the Company's regulated utility subsidiaries, to repay debt and for other general corporate purposes. As part of the Offering, the Company granted the underwriters a 30-day option to purchase additional shares. The underwriters exercised the option and purchased an additional 120,000 shares of the Company's common stock on September 8, 2021. The Company's net increase to Common Equity and Cash proceeds from the exercise of the option was approximately $5.9 million. The proceeds were used to make equity capital contributions to the Company's regulated utility subsidiaries, to repay debt and for other general corporate purposes. Overall, the results of operations and earnings for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 reflect the higher number of average shares outstanding. The Company analyzes operating results using Electric and Gas Adjusted Gross Margins, which are non-GAAP financial measures. Electric Adjusted Gross Margin is calculated as Total Electric Operating Revenue less Cost of Electric Sales. Gas Adjusted Gross Margin is calculated as Total Gas Operating Revenues less Cost of Gas Sales. The Company's management believes Electric and Gas Adjusted Gross Margins provide useful information to investors regarding profitability. Also, the Company's management believes Electric and Gas Adjusted Gross Margins are important financial measures to analyze revenue from the Company's ongoing operations because the approved cost of electric and gas sales are tracked, reconciled and passed through directly to customers in electric and gas tariff rates, resulting in an equal and offsetting amount reflected in Total Electric and Gas Operating Revenue. In the following tables the Company has reconciled Electric and Gas Adjusted Gross Margin to GAAP Gross Margin, which we believe to be the most comparable GAAP financial measure. GAAP Gross Margin is calculated as Revenue less Cost of Sales, and Depreciation and Amortization. The Company calculates Electric and Gas Adjusted Gross Margin as Revenue less Cost of Sales. The Company believes excluding Depreciation and Amortization, which are period costs and not related to volumetric sales, is a meaningful measure to inform investors of the Company's profitability from electric and gas sales in the period. 

      Three Months Ended June 30, 2022 ($ millions)

       Non- Regulated Electric Gas and Other Total Total Operating Revenue $ 54.3 $ 44.6 $ - $ 98.9 Less: Cost of Sales (30.7 ) (16.4 ) - (47.1 ) Less: Depreciation and Amortization (5.7 ) (8.9 ) (0.2 ) (14.8 ) GAAP Gross Margin 17.9 19.3 (0.2 ) 37.0 Depreciation and Amortization 5.7 8.9 0.2 14.8 Adjusted Gross Margin $ 23.6 $ 28.2 $ - $ 51.8 6 

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      Three Months Ended June 30, 2021 ($ millions)

       Non- Regulated Electric Gas and Other Total Total Operating Revenue $ 56.6 $ 40.0 $ - $ 96.6 Less: Cost of Sales (32.3 ) (15.0 ) 

      - (47.3 ) Less: Depreciation and Amortization (6.4 ) (8.2 ) (0.2 ) (14.8 )

       GAAP Gross Margin 17.9 16.8 (0.2 ) 34.5 Depreciation and Amortization 6.4 8.2 0.2 14.8 Adjusted Gross Margin $ 24.3 $ 25.0 $ - $ 49.3 

      Six Months Ended June 30, 2022 ($ millions)

       Non- Regulated Electric Gas and Other Total Total Operating Revenue $ 143.5 $ 148.0 $ - $ 291.5 Less: Cost of Sales (95.3 ) (67.8 ) 

      - (163.1 ) Less: Depreciation and Amortization (12.4 ) (17.4 ) (0.5 ) (30.3 )

       GAAP Gross Margin 35.8 62.8 (0.5 ) 98.1 Depreciation and Amortization 12.4 17.4 0.5 30.3 Adjusted Gross Margin $ 48.2 $ 80.2 $ - $ 128.4 

      Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 ($ millions)

       Non- Regulated Electric Gas and Other Total Total Operating Revenue $ 116.7 $ 118.7 $ - $ 235.4 Less: Cost of Sales (68.7 ) (45.9 ) 

      - (114.6 ) Less: Depreciation and Amortization (12.9 ) (16.4 ) (0.4 ) (29.7 )

       GAAP Gross Margin 35.1 56.4 (0.4 ) 91.1 Depreciation and Amortization 12.9 16.4 0.4 29.7 Adjusted Gross Margin $ 48.0 $ 72.8 $ - $ 120.8 Electric GAAP Gross Margin was $17.9 million in the three months ended June 30, 2022, essentially unchanged compared to the same period in 2021. For the six months ended June 30, 2022, Electric GAAP Gross Margin was $35.8 million, an increase of $0.7 million compared to the same period in 2021. For the three month period, lower depreciation and amortization expense of $0.7 million was offset primarily by the unfavorable effect on sales from cooler late spring weather. The increase in the six month period was driven by higher rates of $0.5 million and lower depreciation and amortization expense of $0.5 million, partially offset by the unfavorable effect on sales from cooler weather of $0.3 million. Gas GAAP Gross Margin was $19.3 million and $62.8 million in the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, increases of $2.5 million and $6.4 million, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2021. The increase in the three month period was primarily driven by higher rates of $3.2 million, partially offset by higher depreciation and amortization expense of $0.7 million. The increase in the six month period was driven by higher rates of $5.9 million and the favorable effect on sales from customer growth and colder weather of $1.5 million, partially offset by higher depreciation and amortization expense of $1.0 million. 7

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      Earnings Overview

       The Company's Net Income was $4.9 million, or $0.30 in Earnings Per Share (EPS) for the second quarter of 2022, an increase of $2.2 million in Net Income, or $0.12 in EPS, compared to the second quarter of 2021. The Company's earnings in the second quarter of 2022 reflect higher Gas Adjusted Gross Margin (a non-GAAP financial measure), partially offset by higher operating expenses. For the six months ended June 30, 2022, the Company reported Net Income of $26.4 million, or $1.65 per share, an increase of $4.8 million, or $0.21 per share, compared to the same six month period in 2021. The Company's earnings in the first six months of 2022 reflect higher Electric and Gas Adjusted Gross Margins (a non-GAAP financial measure), partially offset by higher operating expenses. 

      The Company's three and six months results, including Electric and Gas GAAP Gross Margins, reflect the effects of recently completed base rate cases in New Hampshire (See Note 6, Regulatory Matters, to the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements).

       Electric Adjusted Gross Margin (a non-GAAP financial measure) was $23.6 million and $48.2 million in the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, a decrease of $0.7 million and an increase of $0.2 million, respectively, compared with the same periods in 2021. The decrease in the three month period was primarily driven by lower sales from the effect of cooler late spring weather. The increase in the six month period was driven by higher rates of $0.5 million, partially offset by the unfavorable effect on sales from cooler weather of $0.3 million. Total electric kilowatt-hour (kWh) sales decreased 1.6% in the three month period ended June 30, 2022 compared to the same period in 2021. Sales to Residential customers decreased 3.9% and sales to C&I customers were essentially unchanged in the three month period ended June 30, 2022 compared to the same period in 2021. For the six month period ended June 30, 2022, total electric kWh sales were essentially unchanged. Sales to Residential customers decreased 1.5% while sales to C&I customers increased 1.2% in the six month period ended June 30, 2022 compared to the same period in 2021. The changes in sales to Residential and C&I customers reflect cooler late spring weather in 2022 compared to 2021, partially offset by customer growth. Based on weather data collected in the Company's electric service areas, on average there were 61.8% fewer Cooling Degree Days (CDD) in the second quarter of 2022 compared to the same period in 2021. As of June 30, 2022, the number of electric customers increased by 490 over the previous year. Gas Adjusted Gross Margin (a non-GAAP financial measure) was $28.2 million and $80.2 million in the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, increases of $3.2 million and $7.4 million, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2021. These increases reflect higher rates of $3.2 million and $5.9 million in the three and six month periods, respectively, while the remainder of the increases in these periods is attributable to the favorable effect on sales of customer growth and colder weather. Included in the higher rates for the three and six month periods in 2022 was an increase of $2.4 million resulting from the Company's base rate case in New Hampshire. Gas therm sales increased 2.2% and 3.3% in the three and six month periods ended June 30, 2022, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2021. The increase in gas therm sales reflects colder winter weather in the first quarter of 2022 compared to the same period in 2021, and customer growth. Based on weather data collected in the Company's gas service areas, on average there were 3.9% more Effective Degree Days (EDD) in the first six months of 2022 compared to the same period in 2021, although 2.4% fewer EDD compared to normal. The Company estimates weather-normalized gas therm sales, excluding decoupled sales, increased 0.9% in the first six months of 2022 compared to the same period in 2021. As of June 30, 2022, the number of gas customers increased by 858 over the previous year. Operation and Maintenance (O&M) expenses increased $0.9 million and $2.4 million in three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2021. The increase in the three month period reflects higher professional fees of $0.6 million and higher labor costs of $0.3 million. The increase in the six month period reflects higher labor costs of $1.7 million and higher professional fees of $1.2 million partially offset by lower utility operating costs of $0.5 million. 8

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       Depreciation and Amortization expense was essentially unchanged in the three months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same period in 2021, reflecting additional depreciation associated with higher levels of utility plant in service offset by lower depreciation rates resulting from the rate case order received for Unitil Energy. For the six months ended June 30, 2022, Depreciation and Amortization expense increased $0.6 million compared to the same period in 2021, reflecting additional depreciation associated with higher levels of utility plant in service, partially offset by lower depreciation rates resulting from the rate case order received for Unitil Energy. Taxes Other Than Income Taxes increased $0.5 million and $1.1 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2021. The increase in the three month period reflects higher local property taxes on higher utility plant in service. The increase in the six month period reflects higher local property taxes on higher utility plant in service and higher payroll taxes. Interest Expense, Net was essentially unchanged in the three months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same period in 2021, reflecting lower interest on long-term debt offset by higher interest on short-term borrowings. For the six months ended June 30, 2022, Interest Expense, Net decreased $0.5 million, compared to the same period in 2021, primarily reflecting lower interest on long-term debt, partially offset by higher interest on short-term borrowings. 

      Other Expense (Income), Net decreased $0.5 million and $1.1 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2021, reflecting lower retirement benefit costs.

       Federal and State Income Taxes for the three months ended June 30, 2022 decreased $0.6 million compared with the same period in 2021, primarily resulting from the flow back of excess Accumulated Deferred Income Taxes per regulatory orders received in New Hampshire. For the six months ended June 30, 2022, Federal and State Income Taxes increased $0.3 million compared to the same period in 2021, reflecting higher pre-tax earnings in the current period, partially offset by the flow back of excess Accumulated Deferred Income Taxes per regulatory orders received in New Hampshire. At its January 2022, April 2022 and July 2022 meetings, the Unitil Corporation Board of Directors declared quarterly dividends on the Company's common stock of $0.39 per share. These quarterly dividends result in a current effective annualized dividend rate of $1.56 per share, representing an unbroken record of quarterly dividend payments since trading began in Unitil's common stock. 

      Electric Sales, Revenues and Adjusted Gross Margin

       Kilowatt-hour Sales - Unitil's total electric kWh sales decreased 1.6% in the three month period ended June 30, 2022 compared to the same period in 2021. Sales to Residential customers decreased 3.9% and sales to C&I customers were essentially unchanged in the three month period ended June 30, 2022 compared to the same period in 2021. For the six month period ended June 30, 2022, total electric kWh sales were essentially unchanged. Sales to Residential customers decreased 1.5% while sales to C&I customers increased 1.2% in the six month period ended June 30, 2022 compared to the same period in 2021. The changes in sales to Residential and C&I customers reflect cooler late spring weather in 2022 compared to 2021, partially offset by customer growth. Based on weather data collected in the Company's electric service areas, on average there were 61.8% fewer CDD in the second quarter of 2022 compared to the same period in 2021. As of June 30, 2022, the number of electric customers increased by 490 over the previous year. Sales margins derived from decoupled unit sales are not sensitive to changes in electric kWh sales. As of June 30, 2022, substantially all of the Company's electric kWh sales volumes are decoupled. Prior to June 1, 2022, approximately 27% of the Company's total annual electric kWh sales volumes were decoupled. 9

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      The following table details total kWh sales for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021 by major customer class:

       kWh Sales (millions) Three Months Ended June 30, Six Months Ended June 30, 2022 2021 Change % Change 2022 2021 Change % Change Residential 143.7 149.5 (5.8 ) (3.9 %) 336.5 341.7 (5.2 ) (1.5 %) Commercial / Industrial 224.0 224.0 - - 461.2 455.9 5.3 1.2 % Total 367.7 373.5 (5.8 ) (1.6 %) 797.7 797.6 0.1 - Electric Operating Revenues and Electric Adjusted Gross Margin - The following table details Total Electric Operating Revenues and Electric Adjusted Gross Margin for the three and six month periods ended June 30, 2022 and 2021: 

      Electric Operating Revenues and Electric Adjusted Gross Margin ($ millions)

       Three Months Ended June 30, Six Months Ended June 30, 2022 2021 $ Change % Change 2022 2021 $ Change % Change Electric Operating Revenue: Residential $ 30.5 $ 31.5 $ (1.0 ) (3.2 %) $ 85.3 $ 67.7 $ 17.6 26.0 % Commercial / Industrial 23.8 25.1 (1.3 ) (5.2 %) 58.2 49.0 9.2 18.8 % 

      Total Electric Operating Revenue $ 54.3 $ 56.6 $ (2.3 )

       (4.1 %) $ 143.5 $ 116.7 $ 26.8 23.0 % Cost of Electric Sales $ 30.7 $ 32.3 $ (1.6 ) (5.0 %) $ 95.3 $ 68.7 $ 26.6 38.7 % 

      Electric Adjusted Gross Margin $ 23.6 $ 24.3 $ (0.7 )

       (2.9 )% $ 48.2 $ 48.0 $ 0.2 0.4 % Electric Adjusted Gross Margin (a non-GAAP financial measure) was $23.6 million and $48.2 million in the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, a decrease of $0.7 million and an increase of $0.2 million, respectively, compared with the same periods in 2021. The decrease in the three month period was primarily driven by lower sales from the effect of cooler late spring weather. The increase in the six month period was driven by higher rates of $0.5 million, partially offset by the unfavorable effect on sales from cooler weather of $0.3 million. Total Electric Operating Revenue decreased $2.3 million in the three months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same period in 2021 reflecting lower costs of electric sales, which are tracked and reconciled to costs that are passed through directly to customers, and lower sales of electricity. Total Electric Operating Revenue increased $26.8 million in the six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same period in 2021 reflecting higher costs of electric sales, which are tracked and reconciled to costs that are passed through directly to customers. 

      Gas Sales, Revenues and Adjusted Gross Margin

       Therm Sales - Unitil's total gas therm sales increased 2.2% and 3.3% in the three and six month periods ended June 30, 2022, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2021. In the second quarter of 2022, sales to Residential and C&I customers increased 2.5% and 2.2%, respectively, compared to the same period in 2021. For the six months ended June 30, 2022, sales to Residential and C&I customers increased 2.8% and 3.4%, respectively, compared to the same period in 2021. The increase in gas therm sales reflects colder winter weather in the first quarter of 2022 compared to the same period in 2021, and customer growth. Based on weather data collected in the Company's gas service areas, on average there were 3.9% more EDD in the first six months of 2022 compared to the same period in 2021, although 2.4% 10 

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       fewer EDD compared to normal. The Company estimates weather-normalized gas therm sales, excluding decoupled sales, increased 0.9% in the first six months of 2022 compared to the same period in 2021. As of June 30, 2022, the number of gas customers increased by 858 over the previous year. Sales margins derived from decoupled unit sales (currently representing approximately 11% of total annual therm sales volume) are not sensitive to changes in gas therm sales. 

      The following table details total firm therm sales for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, by major customer class:

      Therm Sales (millions)

       Three Months Ended June 30, Six Months Ended June 30, 2022 2021 Change % Change 2022 2021 Change % Change Residential 8.3 8.1 0.2 2.5 % 32.6 31.7 0.9 2.8 % Commercial / Industrial 37.2 36.4 0.8 2.2 % 111.7 108.0 3.7 3.4 % Total 45.5 44.5 1.0 2.2 % 144.3 139.7 4.6 3.3 % 

      Gas Operating Revenues and Adjusted Gross Margin - The following table details Total Gas Operating Revenues and Gas Adjusted Gross Margin for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021:

      Gas Operating Revenues and Gas Adjusted Gross Margin ($ millions)

       Three Months Ended June 30, Six Months Ended June 30, 2022 2021 $ Change % Change 2022 2021 $ Change % Change Gas Operating Revenue: Residential $ 17.4 $ 16.0 $ 1.4 8.8 % $ 60.2 $ 49.4 $ 10.8 21.9 % Commercial / Industrial 27.2 24.0 3.2 13.3 % 87.8 69.3 18.5 26.7 % 

      Total Gas Operating Revenue $ 44.6 $ 40.0 $ 4.6

       11.5 % $ 148.0 $ 118.7 $ 29.3 24.7 % Cost of Gas Sales $ 16.4 $ 15.0 $ 1.4 9.3 % $ 67.8 $ 45.9 $ 21.9 47.7 % Gas Adjusted Gross Margin $ 28.2 $ 25.0 $ 3.2 12.8 % $ 80.2 $ 72.8 $ 7.4 10.2 % Gas Adjusted Gross Margin (a non-GAAP financial measure) was $28.2 million and $80.2 million in the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, increases of $3.2 million and $7.4 million, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2021. These increases reflect higher rates of $3.2 million and $5.9 million in the three and six month periods, respectively, while the remainder of the increases in these periods is attributable to the favorable effect on sales of customer growth and colder weather. Included in the higher rates for the three and six month periods in 2022 was an increase of $2.4 million resulting from the Company's base rate case in New Hampshire. The increases in Total Gas Operating Revenue of $4.6 million and $29.3 million in the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2021, reflect higher costs of gas sales, which are tracked and reconciled costs that are passed through directly to customers, and higher gas sales volumes. 11 

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       Table of Contents Operating Expenses Cost of Electric Sales - Cost of Electric Sales includes the cost of electric supply and spending on energy efficiency programs. Cost of Electric Sales decreased $1.6 million, or 5.0%, and increased $26.6 million, or 38.7% in the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2021. The decrease in the three month period reflects lower sales of electricity and lower transmission costs for the period. The increase in the six month period reflects higher wholesale electricity prices. Because the Company reconciles and recovers the approved Cost of Electric Sales in its rates at cost on a pass-through basis, changes in approved expenses do not affect earnings. Cost of Gas Sales - Cost of Gas Sales includes the cost to supply the Company's total gas requirements and spending on energy efficiency programs. Cost of Gas Sales increased $1.4 million, or 9.3%, and $21.9 million, or 47.7%, in the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2021. These increases reflect higher sales of gas and higher wholesale gas commodity prices. Because the Company reconciles and recovers the approved Cost of Gas Sales in its rates at cost on a pass-through basis, changes in approved expenses do not affect earnings. Operation and Maintenance (O&M) - O&M expense includes gas and electric utility operating costs, and the operating cost of the Company's corporate and other business activities. O&M expense increased $0.9 million, or 5.1%, and $2.4 million, or 7.0%, in three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2021. The increase in the three month period reflects higher professional fees of $0.6 million and higher labor costs of $0.3 million. The increase in the six month period reflects higher labor costs of $1.7 million and higher professional fees of $1.2 million partially offset by lower utility operating costs of $0.5 million. Depreciation and Amortization - Depreciation and Amortization expense was essentially unchanged in the three months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same period in 2021, reflecting additional depreciation associated with higher levels of utility plant in service offset by lower depreciation rates resulting from the rate case order received for Unitil Energy. For the six months ended June 30, 2022, Depreciation and Amortization expense increased $0.6 million, or 2.0%, compared to the same period in 2021, reflecting additional depreciation associated with higher levels of utility plant in service, partially offset by lower depreciation rates resulting from the rate case order received for Unitil Energy. Taxes Other Than Income Taxes - Taxes Other Than Income Taxes increased $0.5 million, or 8.1%, and $1.1 million, or 8.9% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2021. The increase in the three month period reflects higher local property taxes on higher utility plant in service. The increase in the six month period reflects higher local property taxes on higher utility plant in service and higher payroll taxes. Other Expense (Income), Net - Other Expense (Income), Net decreased $0.5 million, or 45.5%, and $1.1 million, or 45.8%, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2021, reflecting lower retirement benefit costs. Provision for Income Taxes - Federal and State Income Taxes for the three months ended June 30, 2022 decreased $0.6 million compared with the same period in 2021, primarily resulting from the flow back of excess Accumulated Deferred Income Taxes per regulatory orders received in New Hampshire. For the six months ended June 30, 2022, Federal and State Income Taxes increased $0.3 million compared to the same period in 2021, reflecting higher pre-tax earnings in the current period, partially offset by the flow back of excess Accumulated Deferred Income Taxes per regulatory orders received in New Hampshire. Interest Expense, Net - Interest expense is presented in the Consolidated Financial Statements net of interest income. Interest expense is mainly comprised of interest on long-term debt and short-term borrowings. In addition, certain reconciling rate mechanisms used by the Company's distribution operating utilities give rise to regulatory assets and regulatory liabilities on which interest is accrued. 12

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       Unitil's utility subsidiaries operate a number of reconciling rate mechanisms to recover specifically identified costs on a pass-through basis. These reconciling rate mechanisms track costs and revenue on a monthly basis. In any given month, this tracking and reconciling process will produce either an under-collected or an over-collected position. In accordance with the distribution utilities' rate tariffs, interest is accrued on these balances and will produce either interest income or interest expense. Consistent with regulatory precedent, interest income is recorded on an under-collection of costs which creates a regulatory asset to be recovered in future periods when rates are reset. Interest expense is recorded on an over-collection of costs, which creates a regulatory liability to be refunded in future periods when rates are reset. Interest Expense, Net Three Months Ended Six Months Ended ($ millions) June 30, June 30, 2022 2021 Change 2022 2021 Change Interest Expense Long-term Debt $ 6.2 $ 6.5 $ (0.3 ) $ 12.4 $ 13.2 $ (0.8 ) Short-term Debt 0.4 0.1 0.3 0.7 0.3 0.4 Regulatory Liabilities 0.1 0.1 - 0.2 0.2 - Subtotal Interest Expense 6.7 6.7 - 13.3 13.7 (0.4 ) Interest (Income) Regulatory Assets (0.2 ) (0.1 ) (0.1 ) (0.4 ) (0.4 ) - AFUDC (1) and Other (0.2 ) (0.3 ) 0.1 (0.4 ) (0.3 ) (0.1 ) Subtotal Interest (Income) (0.4 ) (0.4 ) - (0.8 ) (0.7 ) (0.1 ) Total Interest Expense, Net $ 6.3 $ 6.3 $ - $ 12.5 $ 13.0 $ (0.5 ) 

      (1) AFUDC - Allowance for Funds Used During Construction.

       Interest Expense, Net was essentially unchanged in the three months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same period in 2021, reflecting lower interest on long-term debt offset by higher interest on short-term borrowings. For the six months ended June 30, 2022, Interest Expense, Net decreased $0.5 million, or 3.8%, compared to the same period in 2021, primarily reflecting lower interest on long-term debt, partially offset by higher interest on short-term borrowings. CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS Sources of Capital Unitil requires capital to fund utility plant additions, working capital and other utility expenditures recovered in subsequent periods through regulated rates. The capital necessary to meet these requirements is derived primarily from internally generated funds, which consist of cash flows from operating activities. The Company initially supplements internally generated funds through short-term bank borrowings, as needed, under its unsecured revolving Credit Facility. Periodically, the Company replaces portions of its short-term debt with long-term debt financings more closely matched to the long-term nature of its utility assets. Additionally, from time to time the Company accesses the public capital markets through public offerings of equity securities. The Company's utility operations are seasonal in nature and therefore are subject to seasonal fluctuations in cash flows. The amount, type and timing of any future financing will vary from year to year based on capital needs and maturity or redemptions of securities. On August 6, 2021, the Company issued and sold 800,000 shares of its common stock at a price of $50.80 per share in a registered public offering (Offering). The Company's net increase to Common Equity and Cash proceeds from the Offering was approximately $38.6 million and was used to make equity capital contributions to the Company's regulated utility subsidiaries, to repay debt and for other general corporate purposes. 13

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       As part of the Offering, the Company granted the underwriters a 30-day over-allotment option to purchase additional shares. The underwriters exercised the over-allotment option and purchased an additional 120,000 shares of the Company's common stock on September 8, 2021. The Company's net increase to Common Equity and Cash proceeds from the over-allotment sales was approximately $5.9 million and was used to make equity capital contributions to the Company's regulated utility subsidiaries, to repay debt and for other general corporate purposes. The Company and its subsidiaries are individually and collectively members of the Unitil Cash Pool (Cash Pool). The Cash Pool is the financing vehicle for day-to-day cash borrowing and investing. The Cash Pool allows for an efficient exchange of cash among the Company and its subsidiaries. The interest rates charged to the subsidiaries for borrowing from the Cash Pool are based on actual interest costs from lenders under the Company's revolving Credit Facility (as defined). At June 30, 2022, June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2021, the Company and all of its subsidiaries were in compliance with the regulatory requirements to participate in the Cash Pool. On July 25, 2018, the Company entered into a Second Amended and Restated Credit Agreement and related documents (collectively, the Credit Facility) with a syndicate of lenders, which amended and restated in its entirety the Company's prior credit facility. The Credit Facility has a borrowing limit of $120 million, which includes a $25 million sublimit for the issuance of standby letters of credit, extends to July 25, 2023, and, under certain conditions, allows for an increase in the borrowing limit by up to $50 million, and two one-year extensions. The Credit Facility provides the Company with the ability to elect that borrowings under the Credit Facility bear-interest under several options, including at a daily fluctuating rate of interest per annum equal to one-month London Interbank Offered Rate plus 1.125%. The terms of the current credit facility allow for a comparable successor rate to be used if the one-month LIBOR rate becomes unavailable. The Company believes that a change to a new rate will not have a material effect on its financial position, operating results, or cash flows. The Company uses the Credit Facility for cash management purposes related to its short-term operating activities. Total gross borrowings were $151.9 million for the six months ended June 30, 2022. Total gross repayments were $169.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2022. The following table details the borrowing limits, amounts outstanding and amounts available under the Credit Facility as of June 30, 2022, June 31, 2021 and December 31, 2021: Revolving Credit Facility ($ millions) June 30, December 31, 2022 2021 2021 Limit $ 120.0 $ 120.0 $ 120.0 Short-Term Borrowings Outstanding 46.2 29.7 64.1 Available $ 73.8 $ 90.3 $ 55.9 The Credit Facility contains customary terms and conditions for credit facilities of this type, including affirmative and negative covenants. There are restrictions on, among other things, the Company's and its subsidiaries' ability to permit liens or incur indebtedness, and restrictions on the Company's ability to merge or consolidate with another entity or change its line of business. The affirmative and negative covenants under the Credit Facility apply until the Credit Facility terminates and all amounts borrowed under the Credit Facility are paid in full (or with respect to letters of credit, they are cash collateralized). 14

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       The only financial covenant in the Credit Facility provides that Funded Debt to Capitalization (as each term is defined in the Credit Facility) cannot exceed 65%, tested on a quarterly basis. At June 30, 2022, June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2021, the Company was in compliance with the covenants contained in the Credit Facility in effect on those dates. The Company is monitoring the coronavirus pandemic, including any effect on planned capital expenditures. The Company does not believe the pandemic will adversely affect its access to capital and funding sources. The Company believes its future operating cash flows, its available borrowing capacity, and its access to private and public capital markets for the issuance of long-term debt and equity securities will be sufficient to meet its working capital and capital investment needs. Unitil Corporation and its utility subsidiaries, Fitchburg, Unitil Energy, Northern Utilities, and Granite State currently are rated "BBB+" by Standard & Poor's Ratings Services. Unitil Corporation and Granite State currently are rated "Baa2", and Fitchburg, Unitil Energy and Northern Utilities are currently rated "Baa1" by Moody's Investors Services. The continued availability of various methods of financing, as well as the choice of a specific form of security for such financing, will depend on many factors, including, but not limited to: security market conditions; general economic climate; regulatory approvals; the ability to meet covenant issuance restrictions; the level of earnings, cash flows and financial position; and the competitive pricing offered by financing sources. The Company provides limited guarantees on certain energy and gas storage management contracts entered into by the distribution utilities. The Company's policy is to limit the duration of these guarantees. As of June 30, 2022, there were approximately $0.7 million of guarantees outstanding with a duration less than one year. Northern Utilities enters into asset management agreements under which Northern Utilities releases certain gas pipeline and storage assets, sells to an asset manager and subsequently repurchases the gas over the course of the gas heating season at the same price at which it sold the gas to the asset manager. There was $12.6 million, $4.9 million and $8.3 million of gas obligations at June 30, 2022, June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2021, respectively, related to these asset management agreements. The amount of gas released in June 2022 and payable in July 2022 is $0.2 million and is recorded in Accounts Payable at June 30, 2022. The amount of gas released in June 2021 and payable in July 2021 was $0.1 million and was recorded in Accounts Payable at June 30, 2021. The amount of gas released in December 2021 and payable in January 2022 was $1.6 million and was recorded in Accounts Payable at December 31, 2021. 

      Off-Balance

      Sheet Arrangements

       The Company and its subsidiaries do not currently use, and are not dependent on the use of, off-balance sheet financing arrangements such as securitization of receivables or obtaining access to assets or cash through special purpose entities or variable interest entities. Unitil Corporation's subsidiaries conduct a portion of their operations in leased facilities, and lease some of their vehicles, machinery and office equipment under both capital and operating lease arrangements. As of June 30, 2022, there were approximately $0.7 million of guarantees on certain energy and gas storage management contracts entered into by the distribution utilities outstanding. See Note 4 (Debt and Financing Arrangements) to the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements. 

      CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES

       The preparation of the Company's financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America requires the Company to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. In making those estimates and assumptions, the Company sometimes is required to 15

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       make difficult, subjective and/or complex judgments about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain and for which different estimates that could reasonably have been used could have resulted in material differences in its financial statements. If actual results were to differ significantly from those estimates, assumptions and judgment, the financial position of the Company could be materially affected and the results of operations of the Company could be materially different than reported. As of March 31, 2022, the Company's critical accounting policies and estimates had not changed significantly from December 31, 2021. See Item 7. "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Critical Accounting Policies" in the Company's 2021 Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information. EMPLOYEES Unitil's commitment to excellence begins with its employees. As of June 30, 2022, the Company and its subsidiaries had 513 employees. The Company considers its relationship with employees to be good and has not experienced any major labor disruptions. Unitil's employees are focused on the Company's mission to safely and reliably deliver "energy for life" and provide customers with affordable and sustainable energy solutions. The Company strives to be the employer of choice in the communities it 
      

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